Northwestern Indiana from 1800 to 1900A regional history written by Timothy H. Ball . . . .

Source Citation:
Ball, Timothy H. 1900. Northwestern Indiana from 1800 to 1900 or A View of Our Region Through the Nineteenth Century. Chicago, Illinois: Donohue and Henneberry. 570 p.






For the first few years northwestern Indiana was a grazing and agricultural region and raising cattle and grain were the main industries. Exports of produce commenced about 1840, grain and pork (pork meaning hogs dressed ready for the meat market) were the first to be sent from the farms, and then cattle. There were, however, exports, and in immense quantities for the number of inhabitants, of quite a different kind. These exports were wild game, "prairie chickens" so called, in great numbers, wild ducks, wild geese, quails, rabbits, and also very much fur. This class of exports, costing nothing but the taking, helped many pioneer families in the way of better living. Soon, added to the grain and cattle and pork, there were sent from the farms butter, eggs and poultry, hay, some wool, some honey, and some sheep. And at length many horses. Grass seed and fruit soon increased the list of exports. As giving some idea of the amount the following records are here inserted: H. C. Beckman of Brunswick, in Lake County, as early as 1872, in the regular course of his trade, bought in a single day thirty-seven hundred eggs and about three hundred pounds of butter. In five months of that year he bought for export 5,600 dozen of eggs and of butter, for the year, 10,000


pounds. About $50,000 was in that year paid out in Lake County for butter and eggs alone, by the different merchants. Judge David Turner made out a list of the exports of Lake County for the year 1883, when Lake County was becoming a large exporting county, and it will serve as an illustration of what the other counties had also to a great extent become as a large food producing and exporting region. Oats, the figures denote bushels, 1,000,000; potatoes, 150,000; rye, 19,857; clover seed, 2,000; Hungarian seed, 9,000; millet seed, 4,500; berries, 4,629; the figures now denote pounds, butter, 544,529; cheese, 220,000; butterine, 3,000,000; wool, 26,553; honey, 26,629; milk, 285,000 gallons; hogs, 16,526 head; cattle, 16,000 head; calves, 1,000; horses, 1,500; chickens, 4,397 dozen; eggs, 200,000 dozen; hay, 65,893 tons; ice, 65,000 tons; sand, 23,000 car loads; brick and tile, 13,000,000; wood, 100 car loads; moss, 50 car loads; cattle slaughtered and shipped, 130,000 head. On ice and sand shipped from Clarke on the Calumet, in business months, the amount paid for freight was $150 each day, or $3,000 each month. And these figures given above are for one county and one year.


Number of bushels of corn raised in these counties in 1898. After the name of each county are given the figures denoting the bushels, and the figures denoting the yield in each county by the acre: Starke, 717,535; 35. Lake, 1,365,156; 39. Porter, 1,431,720; 40. La Porte, 1,528,052; 31. Pulaski, 1,707,545; 35. Newton, 2,434,672; 34. Jasper, 2,435,392; 36. White, 2,584,749; 31. It thus appears that either Porter has


the best corn land or the best farmers. The number of acres in Porter County planted with corn was 35,793, and the average yield was exactly forty bushels for an acre. Lake County, with an average of thirty-nine bushels comes next. La Porte and White are alike averaging only thirty-one bushels.

In the production of oats for the year 1897 Newton, Jasper, and White excel, each producing over a million of bushels. Indeed, Newton was the second oat county in the State, Jasper the third, and White the fifth. Benton County alone exceeded Newton, and Tippecanoe was in advance of White.

Our other five counties produced the same year over half a million bushels of oats each. So it is evident that in 1897 northwestern Indiana produced more than six million bushels of oats. For that same year, 1897, the hay crop of these counties, taking no account of the immense quantities of wild or native grass made into hay on the Kankakee marsh lands, was the following (the number of thousands of tons only is given): Pulaski, 12,000; La Porte, 21,000; Porter, 30,000; Lake, 39,000; White, 39,000; Starke, 43,000; Newton, 65,000; Jasper, 97,000. These are not, except La Porte, large producing wheat counties, yet somewhat is raised in each. The following figures give the number of bushels for 1898: La Porte, 867,186; Pulaski, 316,044; White, 258,765; Porter, 197,532; Starke, 69,120; Jasper, 45,862; Lake, 30,582; Newton, 20,736.

A few more figures ought still to be of interest giving the number of horses in each county: Starke, 3,328; Newton, 6,086; Pulaski, 6,386; Porter, 6,950; Lake, 7,609; Jasper, 8,210; La Porte, 9,048; White, 9,442. And the number of cows in these counties


was in 1897, the year for which the horses are given: Starke, 3,344; Newton, 4,204; Jasper, 4,604; Pulaski, 5,247; White, 5,399; Porter, 8,218; La Porte, 9,053; Lake, 9,832.

The difference in the quantity of Irish potatoes raised in these counties in 1897 is somewhat surprising. The number of thousands of bushels only is here given and the figures are, for Jasper, 67; La Porte, 67; Newton, 47; Porter, 63; Pulaski, 31; Starke, 41; White, 11, and Lake, 546,921, or more than half a million of bushels. In 1899 E. W. Dinwiddie of Plum Grove raised a thousand bushels. In accounting for this great difference it should be borne in mind that Lake County touches that great city, Chicago, and extends from it in a southeast direction over the Calumet region, and that the soil (the sand, the marsh, the peat beds), of the Calumet bottom and of the Cady marsh, especially of that valley which is so often covered with water in the spring time, seems peculiarly adapted for vegetables, such as potatoes, cabbage, onions, and parsnips; and then, there is quite a large settlement of Hollanders along that valley, and they and families of other nationalities make it a special business to raise vegetables for the Chicago market. Considering these facts, looking thus over that great garden region of the Calumet, we need not be surprised that in Lake County should be produced a half million bushels of potatoes in a season. How many thousand heads of cabbages go into Hammond and into Chicago in a season, it is not likely any one has reckoned up. It may be further added here that the number of acres in potatoes in Lake for 1897 was more than eight thousand and in White only four hundred and forty-nine.


These figures for products, thus far given in this chapter, are from the "Indiana Agricultural Reports" and are supposed to be accurate, as they are from official reports compiled by J. B. Conner, chief of state bureau of statistics for Indiana.

Hogs are raised in all these counties to some extent, White taking the lead. The figures for the thousands are, as reported from the counties for 1897, and from the same authority as above: Starke, 7; Lake, 16; Newton 18; Porter, 20; Pulaski, 22; Jasper, 24; La Porte, 25, and White more than 38 thousand. Not many sheep are now kept in this part of the State. Quite a large flock was brought into Lake County in 1840 by Leonard Cutler, and the Mitchells, and others had some large flocks about 1865, but there was not much encouragement for keeping them. In these later years the largest flocks have probably been those of Hon. Joseph A. Little and of Oscar Dinwiddie of Plum Grove, and of Harvey Bryant. Now, or in 1897, the number of sheep and lambs in Lake County was 2,600, and a few over, in Porter 6,000, in La Porte 12,000, in Starke 1,800, in Pulaski 8,700, in White 5,700, in Jasper 3,200, and in Newton 2,500.

In the great sheep raising county of Indiana, Noble, there were in this same year more than forty thousand, while at the same time there were in Noble but six thousand and two cows, and Lake and La Porte had more than nine thousand each. The industries in different counties differ sometimes very much.

Prices of agricultural products have varied very much as the years have passed along. A sudden rise in the price of grain took place in the spring of 1835 which gave an opportunity for the first grain specu-


lation, so far as is known, among the pioneers. Two of the early settlers of Crown Point, William Clark, afterward known as Judge Clark, having been elected associate judge, and William Holton, one of the sterling men of Lake County, who died a few years ago at an advanced age in California, bought oats in La Porte County at fifty cents a bushel. They intended to sow the oats but after reaching home and delaying a little time, they concluded it was too late in the season to sow oats. They hauled the grain back to La Porte and sold it for one dollar and fifty cents a bushel. While the purchase was small in amount the percentage of profit was more than the board of trade men in Chicago generally make. Corn, oats, wheat, at that time brought the same price.

For the encouragement that farmers received in endeavoring to settle up the wild lands, one example is the following: "George Parkinson, of South East Grove, in the winter of 1839 and 1840, sold pork in Michigan City for $1.50 a hundredweight, hauling it some forty miles. He sent a load of grain. The proceeds returned, the man who did the hauling received his pay, and about fifty cents were left."

For several years, including 1844, the average price for wheat in the Chicago market was about 60 cents a bushel. In 1861 corn sold for 17 cents a bushel. In 1864 the price paid for corn at Dyer Station was 90 cents. When potatoes could be sold in the spring for 25 cents per bushel farmers thought it was a good price. That was before the days of potato bugs in this longitude. For several years now they have often sold for a dollar. The following is for the year 1899: "Winamac Markets." Wheat, per bushel, 73 cents; oats, 28; rye, 48; butter, per pound,


11 cents; lard, 8; eggs, per dozen, 11; flour, $12.10; chickens, 6 cents per pound; turkeys, 7; ducks, 5; hams, 10; shoulders, 8; potatoes, per bushel, 60; hogs, per hundred, $3.40.

The dairy business is a large branch of industry. Six trains take milk to Chicago each day, and the milk stands on these roads, besides the regular stations, are many. It is not easy to ascertain the amount of milk shipped in a year nor its value to the farmers, but some idea may be obtained from the following figures: On the Monon line, in the summer, 180 cars, in October 130 each day, daily average 120. On the Pan Handle, summer of 1899, 140 cars, in October 110; for the year, daily average 120. On the Erie road, summer 600, for the year, daily 500. On the Grand Trunk, daily, 400. On the Fort Wayne, daily, 130. Number of cars shipped daily for the entire year, 1,290. This milk is shipped mostly from Porter and Lake counties.

The creameries send off large amounts of butter beside the dairy-made butter sent from the homes. At Dyer, in Lake County, a creamery was started in 1893. The average of butter made there is four thousand pounds each month. Average price for 1899, 20 cents a pound. One thousand dollars, or more, each month is paid to the farmers for the milk.

At St. John, four and a half miles below, on the same road, the line called the Monon, is a still larger creamery. It may be safely said that twelve thousand dollars in a year is there paid out to the farmers. On the State line, six miles south of Dyer, is a third, much larger, where, to the farmers in Lake County is paid about a thousand dollars each month, and some four miles further south a fourth, where a like


amount is paid out. This gives to the farmers on a strip of land along the west edge of Lake County, twelve miles long, and, perhaps, some three or four in width, an income for milk of about $50,000 in a year. It is quite an industry.

At Hebron, in Porter County, there has been for some years a creamery which now uses about 9,000 pounds of milk daily and pays to the dairymen about $1,000 each month. At Merrillville, in Lake County, is a cheese factory which has been doing a good business for several years. Active leaders in the milk industry are, in Lake County, S. B. Woods, J. N. Beckman, and C. B. Benjamin; and in Porter, Messrs. Wahl and Merrifield.


For several years the finest herd of improved cattle in Lake County was kept by Thomas Hughes. He took a large interest in the county fairs. In 1895 he removed to Kansas and died there July 29, of that year, when about 59 years of age. H. C. Beckman and John N. Beckman, his son, had the next best herd, probably, in the county. The largest number of cattle in Lake County, 1,500 head, were kept by John Brown and his son, Neal Brown, in the winter of 1899 and 1900. Large herds of cattle have been kept in the north part of Newton and Jasper counties, raised and kept mainly by men interested in the Chicago cattle market, and not as improved animals for milk and butter. In the south parts of Porter and La Porte counties, along the marsh, many cattle are kept, and in the north of Starke some are kept for milk and butter and for beef.


Near Rensselaer much attention has been given to raising fast horses. In West Creek township of Lake County the Hayden horses have been noted. They have usually been large and strong, drawing heavy loads. Many good horses have been raised in Lake County. For several years there has been held in Crown Point, on one Tuesday of each month, a horse market attended by buyers from Chicago and elsewhere. It has been called the best horse market within quite a distance of Chicago. As raisers of improved breeds of hogs may be named George F. Davis & Co. of Dyer, "originators, breeders, and shippers of the famous Victoria swine, also breeders of cotswold sheep, shorthorn cattle, fancy land and water fowls.'" At the world's Columbian Exposition, in 1893, Mr. Davis took twenty-six different premiums on his Victoria swine, class 61, amounting in all to $550; and in class 178, fat stock, he took seven more premiums, amounting to $150. He also took premiums on sheep, amounting to $80, and on poultry and pigeons $56, making the entire amount of his premiums $836. It is probable that of sheep and hogs, a few, equal to any in the United States, have been owned at Dyer.

Another noted raiser of improved hogs is John Pearce of Eagle Creek township. The variety which he keeps is known as Poland-China. In color these are black. The first improved hogs in Lake County were Berkshires.


The ice industry is for a short time an immense business. The great shipping counties are La Porte and Lake.

The lakes of La Porte County have furnished large


amounts. No full estimate can be made. In Lake County besides the lakes, the Calumet and Kankakee rivers have furnished very many thousand tons. A little idea may be obtained, yet a faint one, from a record of work at Red Cedar Lake, southwest from Crown Point. Armour has there a large ice house, and there are other large ones. In January, 1892, about three weeks of good ice gathering was well improved. At Armour's were working about two hundred men, and at the south end of the lake one hundred. Work goes on at night at Armour's, as they use at his ice house electric light. The record is, that about sixty car loads a day were shipped from Armour's while the men were engaged filling as rapidly as they could the very large house.

It is no wonder the water in that once beautiful lake is not as deep as it once was since such immense quantities of water in a solid form are shipped away every good ice year. The rains and melting snow do not furnish a supply sufficient to fill it up in the spring.

The quantity of frozen water that is stored in the many large ice houses and sent to the cities in the summer time can by no ordinary means be estimated. It is a business which the early pioneers had not considered, and one which, in its magnitude, only the railroads make possible.

Another very large industry is shipping sand, although that furnishes employment for the railroad working men and train men rather than for the citizens who own the sand-banks.

Besides sand shipped from ridges and banks nearer to Chicago, for the last few years trains of cars have been busy endeavoring to remove from Michigan City that immense sand hill known as Hoosier Slide.


At North Judson, in Starke County, is a singular industry, known as a "frog and turtle industry." According to a writer in the North Judson News, "there is a great and growing demand for frogs," and from this place they are shipped "into the leading markets of the country." On the day when the "News" writer visited this establishment, he says that in one hour one hundred and fifty dollars was paid out for frogs, brought in sacks and in wagon loads. For several days they can be kept in barrels until they are shipped and the big pond near by now contains, the "News" writer says, "over three million frogs." He says little about the turtles or tortoises, but they also are bought and shipped.

Quite a little business in this same line is done at Shelby, although there is as yet no large establishment there. From Shelby also, in some seasons, many mushrooms are shipped to Chicago.

A much more attractive industry is the fruit business. In Pulaski County in 1880 there were in cultivation in strawberries fifty-five acres.

Quite a little fruit is raised in Starke County, not far from Round Lake.

Apples and small fruits are raised quite extensively in Lake County, and fruit in Newton and in Jasper Counties.

Around La Porte are fruit and berry farms from which large amounts are sent to market.

In Pine township in Porter County cranberries still grow for market. In September, 1899, the following item of news was written, which will give some idea of this industry.

"The harvesting of the cranberry crop has begun and one hundred persons have been engaged for a


week on the five Blair marshes in Pine township, * * picking the berries, and there remains about a week's work for them. The cranberries this year are of an unusually good quality and the crop is a large one." In Porter County is quite a fruit raiser, who is called an up-to-date farmer, Milton Phiel, who has ten acres of land in fruit, having on this land one thousand pear trees, five hundred winter apple trees, and five thousand strawberry plants. He has, besides fruit, thirty cows, and had in 1899
a thousand chickens.

In Lake County the large berry raiser is H. H. Meeker of Crown Point. He has, near the town, ten acres in small fruit and in nursery grounds. He picked in 1899 of small fruit for market 10,310 baskets. In 1900 he has picked 13,000. He sends off quite an amount of nursery stock.

There is quite a nursery in Jasper County near Rensselaer.


Of course opening farms furnished the first occupation for the pioneers after some shelter was provided for the families and for the less hardy domestic animals.

After shelter there was needed a food supply. And then some of the pioneers gave their attention, and almost from the very first, to putting up mills, first saw-mills, then grist-mills. This work as an industry prevailed largely in La Porte County, where were so many good mill-seats found, and in Porter County in the northern and central parts, in both which counties, for a time, they had a supply of white pine from the Lake Michigan sand hills, out of which to make lumber. In Lake County the earlier mills were south of


the Calumet, and the pine trees of Lake were taken for the buildings of the young Chicago. Mills also were constructed on the Tippecanoe and Iroquois rivers, and in White, Pulaski and Jasper Counties, saw-mills were, in early days, quite a leading industry.

In the line of manufactures factories of various kinds followed. But of these the larger establishments are now mostly not many miles from Lake Michigan, where are the largest towns and cities.

The manufacturing towns are mainly: La Porte, Michigan City, Chesterton, Hobart, East Chicago, Whiting, and Hammond.

At Valparaiso, which is a college town, there is now a mica factory employing ninety girls and twenty-seven men. "Two other concerns are enclosing factory buildings which promise to employ about four hundred men." At Crocker, in Porter County, is a canning factory employing some forty or fifty persons. Tomatoes are put up here in large quantities. Crocker is on the Wabash railroad not far from the Lake County line.

Among our large industries may be named the manufacture of brick, of tile, and of what is called terra cotta. Some of the pioneers made brick as early as 1840, and probably, in some neighborhoods, much earlier, but only for home use. In these later years it has become a large, and in some localities, a leading industry.

In La Porte County two miles east of Michigan City is quite a large establishment where were made in 1897 four and one half millions of brick.

The special factories and large industries of La Porte and Michigan City are given in the notices of those cities.


In Newton County some brick are made at Morocco and at Beaver City, also at Mt. Ayr; but the large factories are at Goodland, where also tile is made, and at Brook where terra cotta lumber is made "for the Chicago market." This terra cotta lumber, so called, is not what is generally called lumber. It is made of three parts clay and one of sawdust. But the sawdust is afterwards burned out leaving a porous kind of brick which may be cut with tools and will hold nails and screws.

In Jasper County brick for home use are made, also drain tile, near Rensselaer, at Remington, and near Pleasant Grove postoffice; but in this county the clay industry is not large.

Clay products are shipped into Starke County instead of being sent out.

In Lake County at Lowell and at Crown Point brick have been made for many years and also some drain tile, for the home market. Brick making commenced near Crown Point, in 1841, when C. M. Mason burned the first kiln. He made in the course of years several millions by the old and slow hand process. At Hobart is located the great brick shipping interest of the county, where "in April, 1887, W. B. Owen began the making of terra cotta lumber and fire proof products," which with the Kulage Brick and Tile Works, forms the principal manufacturing interest of Hobart. Of the terra cotta the State Geologist says: "Sixty car loads a month are shipped to all parts of the United States, the value of the annual output being from $60,000 to $75,000." He further says that there is only one other factory of the kind in Indiana, which is at Brook in Newton County, and only one in all the State of Illinois. The State Geolo-


gist says of the five large downdraft kilns, each one hundred feet long, of the Kulage Company, that they "are probably the largest kilns of the downdraft type in existence," each being capable of holding 260,000 brick.

In Porter County brick are made at Hebron and Valparaiso and Porter, also at Garden City and Chesterton.

The State Geologist, W. S. Blatchley, to whose report in "Clays and Clay Industries," indebtedness is acknowledged for special information, says: "Near the junction of the Michigan Central and Lake Shore railways, at Porter, Indiana, is located the largest pressed front brick factory in the State." It "has been in operation since July, 1890." Amount of capital invested in this factory is about $300,000. An immense supply "of front brick of many colors" is furnished by this factory, and special shape bricks of a hundred different forms, several millions in all being kept constantly on hand.*

One half mile east of this large factory is another establishment conducted by the Chicago Brick Company, where "soft mud brick" are made for Chicago and for other markets at the rate of 35,000 a day for six months of the year.

Near Chesterton not only brick but tile are made as also at Valparaiso and Hebron.

The whole clay industry of Porter County requires the labor of many persons and secures the taking in and paying out of large sums of money. Like the frozen water, which we call ice, and the sand, the clay
*For a more full account see Reports.


of Northwestern Indiana, brings in a large amount of money.

Handling sand and clay and ice makes for us three great industries. At Whiting is one of the great oil refining establishments of the world, owned by the Standard Oil Company. The crude oil is conveyed in two pipe lines running along the track of the Erie railway. One of these pipes burst in some way near Crown Point a few years ago, and quite a river of oil ran out before the break was mended. Some of the town inhabitants gathered up in barrels and vessels what oil they could store, and when the flow was entirely stopped the oil men set fire to the river. Then there was a grand sight. Such peculiar, black, and even beautiful, columns of smoke had never been seen in Crown Point before. Photographic views were taken which were highly prized.

The number of oil tanks at Whiting cannot readily be counted. Many hundreds of persons are employed in the oil works, and quite a city has grown up through this industry.

At East Chicago hundreds are employed in carrying-on these factories: "Inland Iron and Forge Co.; Grasselli Chemical Works; The East Chicago Foundry Co.; Famous Manufacturing Co.; Lesh, Proutt & Abbott Lumber Co.; Treat Car Wheel Works; Chicago Horseshoe Works; Groves Tank Works; Seymour Manufacturing Co.; and East Chicago Tank and Boiler Works." These names have been taken from the East Chicago Globe, of "manufactories already located" there.

Hammond has five quite large industries.

1. The G. H. Hammond Company Slaughter House.


This, as the State Line Slaughter House, was commenced about 1869. In 1872 about eighteen men were employed and three or four car loads of beef were shipped each day.

In 1884 about three thousand head of cattle were butchered each week and the beef was sent to New England and to Europe.

Now, in 1900, from five thousand to six thousand head of cattle and an equal number of hogs are put into shape for shipment each week.

Number of persons employed fourteen hundred. It is not so easy to get information now but the numbers given above came directly from the present superintendent.

2. The Pittsburg Spring Company. Number of men employed sixty-six.

3. The Simplex Railway Supply Company. Number of persons employed three hundred.

4. The Canning Steel Plant. Number employed four hundred.

5. Last and grandest of all, the W. B. Conkey Printing and Publishing Establishment.

It is claimed that there is not another equal to it in the United States or in Europe; and one who goes through the different rooms, sees the machinery at work, and looks at what is accomplished by human skill, may quite readily accept the statement.

Hammond was just the place for such an immense industry, where room for buildings was abundant and where there would be no need for a second or third story, not suggesting a fourteenth.

The rooms, as implied, are all on the ground and cover an area of eighteen or twenty acres. Some of


them are hundreds of feet in their dimensions. In the main printing room are running forty-two presses.

The folding and binding room is long and wide and high, with plenty of light from the sun-light without, and while the well-trained and nimble fingers of the girls who fold by hand accomplish rapid work, and show what trained human hands and eyes can do in acquiring a peculiar tact of manipulation, the amazing if not fascinating features in the room are fixtures, the great folding machines, working as by clock work, folding up, hour after hour, the great sheets of sixteen pages, with the regularity of the movement of a finished chronometer. The invention of a self-binder for farming work was a great triumph of human ingenuity, but one may well stand amazed in looking upon the movements of a great folding machine.

In the composing room appears also another wonder of human invention, the type setter. In the binding room the processes of gilding and of putting on the modern marble edges are interesting.*

The great driving wheel that furnishes the motion for so many machines and presses gives one a grand idea of power. And the mighty heater that keeps all these spacious rooms comfortable in zero weather is another grand illustration of concentrated and diffused force.

This Conkey Company commenced work in Hammond in 1898. The number of persons now employed is eleven hundred. The amount of work turned out in a year amounts to three million dollars.
*I visited this truly magnificent establishment March 27, 1900, and was shown through the different rooms, having an opportunity to see these different processes, receiving all the courtesies and readily obtaining all the information that I could reasonably request.      T. H. B.


A natural question would be, Where can sufficient "copy" be found to keep the type setters busy, so as to keep forty presses running in one room, and to keep all those girls and folding machines and gilders and binders busy month after month in the binding room? And the answer is, it comes from all quarters, comes from everywhere.

Books of various kinds are printed and published among them the American Encyclopaedia, Dictionaries, Story books for children, Catalogues, and many varieties of printed matter.

A periodical is sent out each month called


Northwestern Indiana, in the line of clay products, of oil, of meat for shipment, and of "the art preservative," certainly has some large establishments not to be surpassed, surely, by any others in Indiana.

ADDENDA. The main industries of Crown Point, omitted in their proper place, are these: 1. Making brick at the Wise brickyard; 2. Sash and blind factory, L. Henderlong & Co.; 3. Making water tanks and cistern tubs, George Gosch; 4. Keilman factory, formerly Letz; 5. Cigar factories, four; 6. Crown Brewing Company, making lager beer. Also, 6. Raising poultry, Mrs. Underwood, T. A. Muzzall, Neil Coffin, I. Howland, and some others; and 7. Hack carriage factory. 



Transcribed by Steven R. Shook, April 2012


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