1976 Historic Structure Report - Bailly CemeteryHistoric Structure Report for the Bailly Cemetery, 1976 . . . .

The following is a complete transcription of a historic structure report for the Bailly Cemetery published in December 1976 by the United States Department of the Interior, National Park Service. The report provides significant information concerning the history of Bailly Cemetery.

Source Citation:
Clemenson, A. Berle, Kenneth W. Bennett, and Catherine H. Blee. 1976. Historic Structure Report, Bailly Cemetery: Historical, Architectural, and Archeological Data, Indiana Dunes National Lakeshore, Indiana. United States Department of the Interior, National Park Service, Historic Preservation Division. Denver, Colorado: United States Department of the Interior. 85 p.


Prepared by

A. Berle Clemensen
Kenneth W. Bennett
Catherine H. Blee



December 1976





Below is the administrative data supplied by Indiana Dunes National Lakeshore, which includes an initial listing of structure title, number, specific location within the park, and date or period or cultural significance.

A. Name and Number of Structure

Title: Bailly Cemetery
Number: 34-100 - Cemetery
Location: Bailly Unit
Period: 1910-1915
Significance: Bailly family and others were buried there

Historian Berle Clemensen, Historic Preservation Division, DSC, inspected Bailly Cemetery in October 1975 for the purpose of making recommendations regarding the portion of the Bailly Unit to be included on the National Register. His determination relative to the undefined scope of the term "Bailly Homestead" was that it referred only to the five-building enclave adjacent to the Little Calumet River, thus excluding the cemetery. He believes this latter area to be of Third Order of Significance.

B. Proposed Use of Structure

The historic structure report (1972) prepared by Harry Pfanz and T. Russell Jones recommends restoration to the period of 1910-1917, based on the historic photograph on page 81 of that report. Generally, the cemetery will be restored to its appearance after final alterations were made in 1915. Work will include replacement of the concrete railings on the upper terrace, reconstruction of the wooden cross, repair walks and walls, clean-up, removal of existing vegetation, and the planting of new flora, thereby reestablishing the appropriate historical landscape.

C. Provision for Operating Structure

Proposed use of the structure in the context of operations and management requirements will be confined to visitor use and interpretation. Park staff concurred with the advisement that the cemetery must be secured from vandalism. How this will be accomplished will be determined later. A regular maintenance schedule will be instituted by park management to facilitate the cemetery's general maintenance requirements.

D. Cooperative Agreement, if Any, Executed or Proposed for Operating Structure

Cooperative agreements have been made with NOPAC for ambulance service and with the town of Porter for fire protection.

Associated documents such as master plan and resource studies bear on furnishing, management, and use of the structure. These pertinent documents are listed here with their respective dates:


Master Plan, 1969
Interpretive Prospectus, 1972
Historic Structure Report, 1972, H. Pfanz and T. Russell Jones


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A. Berle Clemensen



A. Preface

This general account and structural history of Bailly Cemetery has been written to provide information for its interpretation and preservation.

My thanks are extended to Superintendent Whitehouse of the Indiana Dunes National Lakeshore and his staff and to the Porter County Historical Society for their research aid.

B. Statement of Significance

Bailly Cemetery is the oldest white cemetery in Porter County, Indiana. Tombstones indicate the earliest burial date to be 1811. The Bailly family, one of the first to settle in the area, made its claim to the plot with the interment of Robert Bailly, Joseph Bailly's son, in 1827. They claimed the cemetery as their private burial place in 1866 although neighbors continued to use it until the early 1870s. Concern for privacy led the Bailly descendents to build this unique walled cemetery.

C. Introduction

Frenchmen were the first whites to travel through northern Indiana. Marquette passed the Dunes area of northern Indiana as early as 1675. In the 1750s the French constructed the Petite Fort near the mouth of Fort Creek in what is now the Indiana Dunes State Park. By this time the Potawatomi Indians dominated the Calumet area with some Ottawa and Miami also inhabiting the region.

White men utilized the Indian trails -- the first commonly used routes in the area. In the period 1803-36 the principal road from Detroit to Fort Dearborn followed the main Sauk Trail to its northern branch, then on to Chicago via the Lake Shore (Calumet Beach) Trail. The northern branch of the Sauk Trail crossed the Bailly area on a southeast to northwest course. In 1837 the Detroit-Chicago road changed to follow the Calumet Beach Trail. This latter route passed just north of Joseph Bailly's homestead. Present-day Highway 12 approximately follows this trail.

Joseph Bailly was born on April 8, 1774, into a long established French family in Quebec. As a young man he chose a profession in the fur trade. In 1798 he married an Indian woman by whom he fathered five boys and a girl, but in 1810 he left this wife and took a second. With this half French, half Ottawa woman, Marie LeFevre de la Vigne, he later settled in the Calumet region of northern Indiana.

Bailly's name first emerged in connection with the area south of Lake Michigan during the War of 1812. On March 17, 1813, a representative of the British Army, Robert Dickson, wrote Bailly asking for his assistance in winning the Indians of that region to the British cause. Bailly agreed. In June 1814 he began to supply the Indians with goods to encourage them into a British alliance. Late in that year the American forces captured Bailly as


he entered the area with more merchandise. Bailly's work for the English netted him three months in prison. Three days after his release he billed the British for his services and losses, but there is no record of reimbursement.

By 1916 Bailly faced hardships in his livelihood. In that year Congress prohibited Canadians from participating in the American fur trade. As an expedient Bailly became an American citizen. Naturalization brought him employment in 1818 with the American Fur Company at its Mackinac Island headquarters.

Evidently dissatisfied as a hireling of the American Fur Company, Joseph Bailly became a free trader in 1821. He received a fur trading license for the Calumet region of Indiana where he located the Bailly homestead.

Bailly entered northern Indiana in 1822 and chose a good location for his fur trading post near the intersection of two Indian trails (the Calumet Beach and the northern Branch of the Sauk Trail). Fur trading in the area, however, had declined. It reached a nadir for Bailly in the period 1828-30. The American Fur Company, his major market, recorded no business with him in that period except charges of interest on past debts. Evidently to augment his limited income from furs, Bailly opened a tavern nearby on the northern branch of the Sauk Trail, which formed the main Chicago-Detroit road at the time.

The Potawatomi Treaty of 1826 placed the Little Calumet River area in the public domain. In 1829 United States surveyors established section lines in the area of the Bailly homestead. Joseph applied for a land title, and on September 6, 1831, he was conveyed by patent the SE 1/4 of Section 27, Township 37, Range 6 West. On this 159.80 acres of land Bailly had his homestead. The cemetery, which carried the family name, was located north of the home site.

D. Structural History

The burial ground, comprising about two acres, is located on a sand hill bout three-fourths of a mile north of the Bailly home buildings. Its Survey Plat location is the NE 1/4 of Section 27, Township 37, Range 6 West. The plot derived its name from the numerous Bailly family graves located there, as well as from Bailly ownership and maintenance of the site. Jacob Stair, however, first owned the land on which the cemetery was located, having purchased it on July 8, 1834. Stair deeded the property to Therese Vigne, Joseph Bailly's stepdaughter, on February15, 1839, after she paid the delinquent taxes. Joel Wicker, Bailly's son-in-law, obtained the land in 1856, passing it to Rose Bailly Howe in March 1864. She owned it until her death in 1891, at which time her daughter Frances R. Howe acquired the title. Following her death, the Danielson family purchased the land; they deeded it to the Michigan City Historical Society in 1949. In 1971 the United States government acquired the property.1


Indians reportedly first used the site for their dead.2 Although some skeletons have been uncovered on several occasions, they have been reburied without a determination of their race. As a result no one has established that the hill originally served as an Indian burial ground.

Joseph Bailly's granddaughter, Frances R. Howe, claimed the first interment occurred in 1827 when Bailly buried his ten-year-old son Robert.3 However, it is very doubtful that this boy was the first white entombed there. Just outside the present cemetery wall on the north are tombstones containing eight names. Four of these markers have dates preceding 1827, the year Robert Bailly died. These include: Isaac Schellinger, 1811; Peter Carlbon, 1814; Rhoda Schellinger, 1816; and Thomas B. Speer, 1817.

In 1827 Joseph Bailly chose the sand hill as the resting place for his son Robert. Near the grave he placed a a large oak cross, which travelers on the nearby trail could easily view. Bailly constructed a small log shelter in front of the cross that served as protection for those who wished to pray there.4

Joseph Bailly, his wife Marie, and all their daughters have since been buried in the cemetery. A stepdaughter, son-in-law, and several grandchildren were also interred there. In addition, numerous Swedish immigrants used the hill for their dead.5

Two months before Marie Bailly's death in September 1866, her daughter, Mrs. Rose Bailly Howe, enclosed the area around the family graves with a wooden fence. At the same time she restricted the cemetery to Bailly family members and asked the neighbors to remove their dead,6 but few complied. Instead, during the absence of Mrs. Howe and her daughters in Europe (1869-1874), non-family graves increased: three Swedish immigrants were buried there in that period.7

Upon her return from Europe Mrs. Howe was evidently distressed to find how little the neighbors had cooperated to convert the hill into a private


family cemetery. Maintenance of the enclosed family plot offered an alternative method to delineate family graves from the others and afford some privacy. In 1878 she contracted with John Peter Nord to keep the fence in repair and weed the enclosure twice a year.8

Privacy for the family graves increasingly concerned Mrs. Rose Bailly Howe after her daughter Rose died in 1879. In the early 1880s Mrs. Howe had the wooden fence removed and the area encompassed with a six-foot limestone wall topped with iron spiked. A seven-foot-wide two-door iron gate on the south guarded the driveway entrance. Fastened to three inside walls were wooden cabinets with rounded tops and a cross over each. Figures inside each cabinet depicted the stations of the cross. Additionally, each cabinet had a kneeling bench beneath it. An altar was located in the southeast corner. "Graveyard Myrtle" gave the enclosure a subtle fragrance. Trees and other "Sweet-Smelling" plants also grew inside the walls.9

Since the original cross placed on the site by Joseph Bailly had decayed, Mrs. Howe decided to replace it with a replica. A a ceremony in December 1884 she dedicated the new cross, which was centered on the north atop a rough stone mound.10 The cross beam was supposedly notched into the vertical column and held in place with a strap of iron bolted to it.

A short time after the death of Mrs. Rose Bailly Howe in May 1891, her daughter, Miss Frances R. Howe, had two plaques measuring about three by five and one-half feet emplaced in the north wall. One bore the names of Joseph and Marie Bailly and the other those of Francis and Rose Bailly Howe. In addition, two nearby smaller plaques carried biblical inscriptions. About this same time Miss Howe evidently had a low cross placed opposite the large one.11

The graves of Joseph and Marie Bailly were located near the large cross at the north center of the cemetery. Their son's grave was to the east while to the west were the graves of Francis Howe and his wife Rose Bailly, their daughter Rose, and four of their other children who died in infancy. A second row of graves to the south marked the resting place of other family members.12


Most graves had thin slab stone markers that bore the occupant's name and the dates of birth and death.13

In 1914 Miss Frances R. Howe contracted with Theodore Stephens of Chesterton, Indiana, to change the cemetery. Worried about vandalism, she wished to adopt a Roman-style plan. Stephens constructed a new concrete block wall, with top spindles and coping, around the old one. He filled the six to eight inches of space between the walls with concrete. On the north a stairway led to the top. Before filling the interior with sand he removed the cabinets and several plaques from the north wall. At Miss Howe's request he left the large plaque with Francis and Rose Bailly Howe's names in place. The plaques and a duplicate of the one left inside were fixed to the south exterior of the new wall. In addition Stephens laid some tombstones on the graves and placed others against the wall.14

Stephens circled the cemetery wall at a distance of some ten feet with a concrete retaining wall. About nine feet beyond the retaining wall he placed a second similar wall. Miss Howe intended to use the space between the two walls as a roadway, but she died before it could be completed.15 In addition Frances How had the area to the highway and around the wall landscaped with "grave plants." Besides grass, colored flowers topped the cemetery.16

Miss Frances Howe purchased a Spanish pine cross in California to adorn the remodeled cemetery. When the cross arrived, Stephens assembled it. He placed the fifteen-foot-high cross facing north near the center, atop the enclosure.17

Frances R. Howe's death on January 20, 1917, ended the line of Bailly descendents occupying the homestead. Her body, the last to be interred in the cemetery, was buried in the northwest corner. The metallic coffin was enclosed in a dark-brown oak box with copper trim.18

The Danielsons, who purchased the property after Miss Howe's death, allowed their livestock to graze up to the west and south sides of the cemetery


wall. The animals, as well as time, undoubtedly destroyed much of the landscape vegetation placed there by Theodore Stephens.19



Family Interments in the Bailly Cemetery

Joseph Bailly: 1774-1835

Robert Bailly: 1817-27 (son of Joseph and Marie Bailly)

L'Arbre Croche Infant: 1815-15 (legendary son of Joseph and Marie Bailly interred in the Bailly Cemetery in 1827)

Esther Bailly Whistler: 1811-43 (daughter of Joseph and Marie Bailly)

Therese de la Vigne (?)-1843 (daughter of Marie Bailly by her first marriage)

Hortense Bailly Wicker: 1823-55 (daughter of Joseph and Marie Bailly)

Marie LeFevre de la Vigne Bailly: 1783-1866 (wife of Joseph Bailly)

Francis Howe: 1811-50 (husband of Rose Bailly Howe)

Rose Bailly Howe: 1813-91 (daughter of Joseph and Marie Bailly)

Frank Howe (infant son of Francis and Rose Howe)

Infant (son of Francis and Rose Howe)

Eleanor Howe (infant daughter of Francis and Rose Howe)

Infant (daughter of Francis and Rose Howe)

Rose Howe: 1842-79 (daughter of Francis and Rose Howe)

Two nephews of Rose Bailly Howe

Frances R. Howe: 1851-1917 (daughter of Francis and Rose Howe)




Books and Articles

Howe, Frances R. The Story of a French Homestead in the Old Northwest. Columbus, Ohio: Press of Nitschke Bros., 1907.

Moore, Powell A. The Calumet Region: Indiana's Last Frontier. Indianapolis: Indiana Historical Society, 1959.

Nelson, C. W. "The Bailly Cemetery." (1949). MS, Reed Folder, in files of Indiana Dunes National Lakeshore Park.

Russell, Carl P. "The Independent Fur Traders of Northern Indiana." (1962). MS, in files of Indiana Dunes National Lakeshore Park.

Schiemann, Olga. "Historical Notes." (1952). MS, in files of Indiana Dunes National Lakeshore Park.

Stephens, Theodore. "Bailly Cemetery - Roman Style." Duneland Historical Society, Living Biographies 2, no. 4 (May 1956).


Lamb, W. Kay (Dominion Archivist, Public Archives of Canada), to Earl H. Reed, 1959.


Chesterton (Ind.) Tribune.


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Illustration 1.
Bailly Homestead unit.


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Illustration 2.
Bailly Cemetery area.


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Illustration 3.
Large plaques on south cemetery wall.


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Illustration 4.
Small plaques on south cemetery wall.


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Kenneth W. Bennett


A. Acknowledgments

While working on this project, the author became increasingly aware of the value of conversing or working with specific individuals or groups who have shown themselves to be highly competent and, most notably, very cooperative. Those persons with whom he had continuous contact and upon whom he relied heavily for assistance should be acknowledged at this time. They include fellow Denver Service Center co-workers and the entire staff of the Indiana Dunes National Lakeshore, without whose sincere and concentrated efforts this report could not have been properly completed. Thanks go to those persons who contributed greatly toward the production of this report.

B. Introduction

The Bailly Cemetery, which has regional historical significance as well as a direct historical relationship with the Bailly complex, is located 0.8 miles north of the five-building enclave and some 200 feet south of U.S. Highway 12. This positions it approximately one quarter of a mile west of the junction of U.S. 12 and Mineral Springs Road. Geographically the cemetery is situated in Porter County in the NE 1/4 of Section 27.

In part, this area served as a burial site for the Joseph Bailly family. The selection of this site was probably based on its close proximity to an existing historic (and possibly prehistoric) burial plot. Considerable conjecture still exists today as whether the mound on which the cemetery now stands was used as a prehistoric burial site. Evidence in the form of unidentified human bones offers little in the way of authentication, but does sustain the possibility that such was the case.

The original configuration of the cemetery has been transformed by three basic alterations, not to mention several intermediate changes. First the burial plot was enclosed with a wooden fence ca. 1837. The second transformation occurred about 1880 or 1881 when the wooden barrier was removed and a six-foot limestone wall crowned with iron spikes was erected. The area assumed its final appearance in 1915 when a rusticated concrete block facade was placed around the dressed limestone wall. In conjunction with the newly constructed wall facade, a precast concrete balustrade was assembled atop the rusticated stonework. A stairway was also built leading from the north wall to the perimeter roadway. The exposed interior was then filled with sand, landscaped with walkways and flora, and accented with a visually dominant and centrally located standing cross. Reverend Carlson, in his report, assessed the height of the cross's vertical column at about fifteen feet. However, judging from the available photographic evidence, an estimate of fourteen feet would be more accurate.

Because of numerous evolutionary changes, the writer will restrict his commentary to the two primary and most architecturally significant cemetery configurations. All major aspects of those two restorations proposals will be covered in the test of this report.


C. Appearance

1. Structural Development for Ca. 1910 Appearance

The cemetery's ca. 1910 appearance was reflective of the 1880s modification that involved the complete enclosure of the burial plot by a six-foot-high limestone wall. Inserted into the concrete cap, which topped the limestone wall, were regularly-spaced iron spikes. A single access was left in the south wall in the form of a seven-foot passageway secured with a double iron gate mantled with spikes. Wooden cabinets, each displaying a figurine; kneeling benches; numerous crosses; and an altar were contained within the necropolis1 along with a random arrangement of grave sites and their respective headstones. Not all the grave sites were enclosed during this 1885 modification. Landscaping probably entailed periodic clearing of indigenous undergrowth. Construction components incorporated into this particular alteration were:

    (a) A six-foot limestone wall topped with iron spikes
    (b) A seven-foot-wide iron entrance gate with spikes
    (c) Wooden cabinets with rounded tops and a cross over each
    (d) Figurines, sheltered within each cabinet, depicting the
            Stations of the Cross
    (e) A cross topping a rough stone mound marking the grave of
            Joseph Bailly's son
    (f) Ground cover, unknown

2. Structural Development for Ca. 1915 Appearance

In 1915, as today, the landscape revealed an elevation rise in the form of a mound capped by a vertical seven-foot cemetery wall rectangular in shape and measuring fifty-eight feet four inches by forty-nine feet ten inches. Buttresses are situated at all four corners with intermediate ones located approximately in the center of the two longer sides. Two additional buttresses are located immediately opposite each other at the furthermost extension of the double abamurus that flanks a concrete stairway.

Grading immediately surrounding the four enclosed walls is elliptically belted by a roadway defined by concrete retaining walls, with the inner wall forming a terrace. In actuality, the roadway constitutes one terrace with the roadway's inner retaining way supporting the second terrace. Both then are ascended by a third terrace that is formed by the sand-filled cemetery wall. The outer roadway retaining wall has collapsed or noticeably shifted due primarily to later grading loads and natural soil erosion.

Steps centrally and perpendicularly abut against the north elevation plane and lead from the first terrace to the top of the rusticated concrete block wall coping. Inside the rusticated concrete block coping -- the highest horizontal plane -- are walkways enclosing and quadrifiding the san-filled interior. These four walkways radiate from a central , open hub and bisect the length of each


perimeter wall. Located approximately at the center and inscribed within the curbed, circular sidewalk forming the open hub is a concrete-capped limestone footing that once supported the fourteen-foot wooden cross. The cross has since been partially destroyed either through general neglect or vandalism, as has the precast concrete balustrade that was situated atop the precast rusticated concrete block. The cemetery took on this appearance, which it retains today, as a result of a construction contract let by Mrs. Howe ca. 1913. The present ground cover does not resemble what was there immediately following the cemetery's modification.

The term "grave plant" was used to describe the type of foliage adorning the second terrace, with grass denoted as the prevailing ground cover for the upper terrace. The first terrace or unfinished roadway was for the most part devoid of ground cover because it served as a visitor access to the cemetery grounds.

Construction components incorporated into this alteration, including those that were removed, include:

    (a) A rusticated precast concrete block
    (b) A precast concrete balustrade
    (c) A stairway
    (d) A fourteen-foot "Spanish pine" cross
    (e) A new concrete duplicate wall plaque
    (f) Sand filling of the previously open necropolis
    (g) Concrete walkways
    (h) Two precast rusticated block grave site enclosures (planters)
    (i) Roadway retaining walls
    (j) New landscaping
    (k) Removal of double gate
    (l) Removal of coping spikes
    (m) Removal of wooden cabinets
    (n) Removal of an altar

D. Anticipated Use

The cemetery will complement the five-building historic river setting, serving as the concluding chapter to the Bailly story. Upon rehabilitation it will be utilized for visitor and interpretive use as it relates to the nearby Bailly Homestead site.

E. Existing Structural Components

Below is an itemized listing of all major structural components. Their present conditions will be elaborated upon in the succeeding paragraphs:

    (1) Limestone wall
    (2) Buttresses
    (3) Precast rusticated concrete block facade
    (4) Stairway
    (5) Balustrade
    (6) Retaining walls


    (7) Wall footings
    (8) Concrete walkways and curbing
    (9) Landscaping

1. Existing Conditions

a) Encased Limestone Wall

It is presently impossible to make a thorough assessment of this wall's stability, but it has been deduced through a superficial examination that the wall is structurally sound and intact.

b) Buttresses

A typical detail, these are composed of an outer facing of bonded precast rusticated concrete block and an inner core of what is probably heavy aggregate concrete fill. All buttresses inner cores appear to be stable, but the exposed block facing shows partial area of spalling and mortar deterioration.

c) Concrete Block Facade

The precast rusticated facade's existing condition reflects a natural sequence of deterioration due to general neglect coupled with sporadic attacks of vandalism. The rusticated surfaces of the blocks show evidence of spalling as does the concrete cap that tops them. Areas comprising, or immediately adjacent to, those buttressed portions of the wall have sustained more noticeable damage, primarily because of of moisture-absorbing tendency enhanced by the absence of direct sunlight for drying. The presence of fungi on exterior surfaces of the precast concrete block facade contributes to the blocks' degeneration.

The molded precast concrete coping mantling the rusticated block wall has succumbed as a result of years of idle use and abuse. Segments of coping are either missing, in the process of fracturing, or entirely absent. The cellular configuration of the precast concrete coping contributes to overall deterioration by permitting water to pool within its built-in cavities. Also included among internal wall structural variables is the condition of the mortar or its absence. Partial mortar erosion is found within specific area. Present determinations indicate minimum impact on the wall from grade erosion. However, root systems extending into and behnd the wall facade create a structural problem because the cellular blocks provide them with a source of moisture.

d) Stairway

The stairway is composed of a series of fourteen seven-inch risers and thirteen fourteen-inch treads, all of concrete. General condition would be classified as good although there is nominal tread wear and weathering. A single tread indicates concrete fracturing at its leading edge.

e) Balustrade (rails and pedestals included)

Balustrade components are a precast concrete material with individual block rail units consisting of three full cells and two half cells, each measuring two


feet by one foot by eight inches. The pedestal is a solid concrete casting about on foot seven inches high by a variable perimeter not exceeding a five-and-a-half-inch square. Destruction of the balustrade can be attributed to periodic vandalism.

f) Retaining Walls

Taking the form of concentric modified ellipses, the eight-inch-thick, formed, poured concrete double retaining walls seem structurally sound on the western half but are failing on the eastern half. Major factors influencing this decline are extensive soil erosion occurring on the downgrade side of the outside wall and lateral grade pressures from the ascending terraces. These two factors have contributed to the wall's vertical fracture lines, its downgrade leaning, and even to the degree of sectional collapses of the outer wall. Evidence would indicate that the peripheral tree line is causing subgrade disturbance by natural root system expansion in specific areas along the outer wall.

g) Block Facade Wall Footings

The existing wall footings were found to be approximately three feet deep, thus reveling why there is currently little evidence of wall movement. There is no visible evidence of concrete reinforcing. The finished nine-inch upper portion of concrete footing discloses the use of wooden forms in contrast to the lower bulk portion, which is pit formed. The thickness of footing could be estimated in excess of fifteen inches. In summation, the footing are in excellent condition and would require only minimal restoration attention.

h) Concrete Walkways and Curbings

These radial, grooved, six-foot-wide concrete walkways atop the necropolis are continuous in form, but because of the sand fill, settlement has caused some fracturing and a certain amount of crumbling. The five-inch-wide curb embracing the centralized circular walkway is generally intact, as is the perimeter walkway abutting against the precast exterior wall coping.

i) Landscaping

The landscaping consists of a conglomerate of undergrowth, none of which would be considered historical. No care has been taken to retain the growth existing at the time of the cemetery's greatest use.

Those gravestones that are visible are widely scattered throughout the second terrace level, with the probability that others are buried nearby. The exposed gravestones are in a state of partial deterioration due either to weathering or vandalism or both.


F. Restoration Alternatives

1. Materials and Their Application, Ca. 1910 Restoration

Materials to be utilized are dictated by applicable needs and are identified in the following commentary.

Most notable would be the complete excavation of the sand filled necropolis, which would also entail exhuming a grave. A second major consideration would be the required removal of the rusticated concrete block facade and the immediate damage this would cause to the historic limestone wall. Upon exposure of the wall, a tested stone preservative might be applied to neutralize further decay. The above procedure would follow necessary stone replacement and subsequent repointing. Identification and relocation of graves and their respective markers would be a prerequisite for restoring the historical integrity of the site. A passageway through the south elevation of the necropolis would have to be reintroduced, with the concomitant installation of a reconstructed heavy wrought-iron double gate. Iron spikes would also have to be reinserted into the cap atop the limestone wall. Demolition of the double retaining walls, stairway, and concrete walkways would be required because they intrude on the ca. 1910 setting. As a follow-up to the termination of demolition activities, grade restoration would be required. Period ground cover is unknown.

2. Materials and Their Application, Ca. 1915 Restoration.

Standard preservation techniques would generally apply to the structure for it to reflect a ca. 1915 setting. Nominal repointing of the exterior precast concrete wall would be required along with a minimal quantity of block replacement. A preservative coating, proven by testing, would then be applied o the exterior wall surfaces. The balustrade that was previously situated atop the the precast concrete wall coping would have to be entirely reconstructed, as would the cross that once stood within the centralized encirclement atop the sanf-filled necropolis. Material historically referred to as "Spanish pine" will be identified as to specie and used in the reconstruction of the wooden cross. Also, segments of the outer concrete retaining wall areas would require replumbing. Stephens' original design was to encircle the necropolis with a concrete roadway bound by two concrete retaining walls. Today only the two retaining walls attest to this fact, because the roadway's concrete surface was never poured. Augmentation of the existing features with a reconstructed roadway surface is superfluous, for the existing walls adequately show the designer's intent. General patching would be required on the following concrete components: wall coping, walkways and curbings, stairway, and retaining wall. Buttresses and footings are in little need of repair.

The cemetery would in essence retain its existing contours. However, new ground cover would be planted to mirror documented vegetation: grass and "grave plants." Such documentation may be found in Mr. Stepehens' resume:

        She also landscaped the hill in a manner befitting it. There were
        plantings of what we called "grave plants" all over the hill from


        the highway to the walls and atop the wall grass and gaily
        colored flowers.2

The best guess for a flower equivalent to the "grave plants" mentioned would be the common iris. Plantings of iris would be made on the second terrace and surrounding mound. The upper terrace would be planted with colored flowers and native grasses.

G. Recommendations

Even discounting all the possible complications resulting from exhuming a grave, restoration to a 1910 date would require both extensive demolition and considerable reconstruction, and the credibility of the restoration would still be in question. Previously a Mr. Nelson did raise such a question in anticipation of forthcoming restoration decisions by explicitly commenting:

        There has been considerable talk of removing the sand within the
        walls and restoring the plot to its original state. There would
        be difficulties to contend with. Miss Howe's body would have to
        be exhumed and reburied by the side of her ancestors. Furthermore,
        one of the men who helped haul in the sand told me that several of
        the thin headstones dating from 1850 or 1860 had broken and were
        lying on the ground. These were put up along the walls before
        filling operations began, and for this reason it would probably
        be impossible to locate the graves at which they were erected.3

Because of limited photographic documentation, it would be nearly impossible to accurately relocate within the necropolis all the artifacts originally placed there. Site integrity would be sacrificed at the expense of an arbitrary date that in itself has little significance.

For these reasons the writer recommends a restoration date of ca. 1915, which would preserve existing site integrity. This restoration date would also allow the cemetery setting to closely correlate with the restoration period established for the Bailly Homestead complex.

H. Additional Design Considerations

1. Security Against Vandalism

It has been determined that the erection of a security barrier, independent of type, would not totally preclude illegal entry. Also taken into account were the built-in negative aspects relating to infringement upon the historical scene. With this in mind, the only remaining security alternatives would be


restricted to forms of visual monitoring either by park staff or other policing agencies.

2. Recommended Visitor Access

A wood chip walkway would lead from the entrance drive to the southernmost extension of the parted and flared outer retaining wall.

3. Reactivation of Well and Windmill

To preface a structural commentary, a general description of the setting would be appropriate. Both the existing well and windmill are located approximately twenty-five yards south-southwest of the cemetery wall and some fifty yards east of the McGrannass house. The windmill, tower, and pumphouse are situated directly over the well. A nearby structure of more recent vintage should probably be removed, since its design has little or no architectural significance and is certainly out of context with the historical setting.

For a period of time the well and windmill functioned, at least partially, to supply a watering system for the cemetery grounds. Mr. Stephens, who was contracted by Mrs. Rose Howe, to refurbish the cemetery in 1913, made a brief reference to this in his report. He also called attention to the windmill's possible interim irrigation function: "A high windmill with a large storage tank at the top was erected, with pipes laid all over the grounds as an elaborate sprinkling system."4

Even with this documentation, it is the writer's personal opinion that Nelson was merely describing the anticipated implementation of an irrigation system. There is no positive evidence that the windmill's intended function in regard to the cemetery was ever fully realized; it probably never was.

The writer's assessment of the aforementioned documentation is based upon the ascending topographical features of the cemetery and the fact that no physical evidence has been found to support the windmill's alleged irrigation function. This is not to say that it could not have been utilized in this capacity, but practicality precludes that possibility.

The windmill's location places it between the cemetery and the McGrannass farmhouse, thereby suggesting the possibility of dual roles. In essence, it could have served both, but not necessarily simultaneously. Regardless of this dichotomy of function, the well and windmill were in some facet interrelated with the cemetery, thereby making them an integral part of the historical scene.

A brief commentary follows on several of the primary structural components of the well, well hut, windmill, and tower.


a) Well

Observation indicates that the well hole is basically intact, but it is recommended that the well water be tested for drinkability.

b) Pumphouse

This wooden shelter, erected within the steel base framework of the tower, is in fair condition considering its long period of disuse. Its board and batten vertical exterior siding and its roof have been covered with an asbestos rolled roofing material. The flooring is brick and is showing signs of collapse in the area where it also serves as a capping over the well hole.

c) Vane and Arm

Both the sheet metal trapezoidal vane and its supporting hinged metal rod arm are rusting but appear to be restorable.

d) Gearing Mechanism and Brake Lever

Both apparatuses are comprised of metal components and thus show a greater dgree of rust deterioration because they are exposed and subject to extensive oxidation. In all probability the brake lever is frozen to the gearing mechanism and would require unit replacement.

4. Tower and Its Components

a) Corner Post and Tie-Rods

Both the steel angle corner post and the steel diagonal tie-rods appear to be structurally sound with nominal rusting indicated.

b) Pump Rod and Ladder

Both metal components have portions missing. Replacement of the pump rod is required as is splice welding of the fallen portion enabling full ladder extension, provided it is not rusted to the degree that would necessitate a complete new unit.

c) Storage Tank

With the possible exception of the bottom portion, the sheet metal tapered tank appears to be in fair condition.

d) Hand Pump, Cylinder, and Pipe

The surface-mounted hand pump is missing. The existing brick floor and well cap precluded a sublevel examination for the presence of the other two components.

It is common practice to have steel anchor plates riveted to the bottom of each corner post, which in turn are securely attached to a concrete or masonry


pier. This s a typical detail; however, its presence could only be verified by extensive excavation, which could not be accomplished at the time of inspection. Reexamination of the historical fabric should precede the construction document phase to determine existing conditions.


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Package Description
Restoration of Cemetery and Trail to Cemetery to ca 1910 appearance. Trail will begin at Bailly Homestead and end at Cemetery.

Package Justification
To preserve historic trail and provide for interpretation of cemetery and area as provided for in Master Plan, Interpretative Prospectus and Historic Structures Report. The cemetery will represent the entire historic era beginning with and through the Bailly era.

Management's Requirements
I. Planning - Design - Construction

        A. Master Plan - Completed and Approved 1970. Needs Revision.

        B. Resource Management Plans - An Historic Structures Report for
            Bailly Homestead has been published. A similar report is required
            for the Chellberg "Living Farm." Additional historic and archeological
            research is required. An Historical Base Map should be prepared.

        C. Interpretive Prospectus - Approved October 1972.


        D. Development Concept Plan - 626/40,009 approved 1973.

        E. Buildings and Utilities Required - Restoration of cemetery.

        F. Roads &/or Trails Required - .8 mile of historic trail

IV. History - Historic Structures Report completed 1972.

V. Museum Exhibits and Audiovisuals

        C. Wayside Exhibits

Interpretive signing (6 signs)

VI. Archaeology (see following studies)

        Honerkamp, Marjory
        1968    An appraisal of the Archeological Resources and Ecological
                    Context of the Proposed Indiana Dunes National Lakeshore,
                    Ms, Mational Park Service, Lincoln

        Limp, Frederick
        1964    An Archeological Study of an Early Historic Homestead in
                    the Calumet, Ms, National Park Service, Lincoln


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Part I

Package 203 provides for the restoration of the Historic Trail and Cemetery, Bailly Homestead, Indiana Dunes National Lakeshore. It is recommended that the cemetery be considered third order of significance. The level of treatment will be restoration. A class B architectural investigation will be conducted to determine recommendations for treatment. A Historic Structure Report will be prepared including the following sections: Architectural Data Section, Historic Data Section and Administrative Data Section. Funds for contract documents have not been programmed.

Although the development/study package proposal for this package is titled "Historic Trail and Cemetery Restoration" and the comprehensive design makes reference to a historic trail, no physical evidence has been found to substantiate the existence of such trail - either for walking or carriage. It is recommended that "Historic Trail" be eliminated from the title of this project.

Because Bailly Homestead is listed on the National Register of Historic Places, projects affecting it are subject to the requirements of the Advisory Council on Historic Preservation "Procedures for the Protection of Historic and Cultural Environment (36 CFR Part 800). Historic preservation concerns will be paramount and at the appropriate stage of


planning, the Regional Director shall, in consultation with the Indiana State Historic Preservation Officer, apply the Advisory Council "Criteria for Evvect (Sec. 800.8) and "Criteria for Adverse Effect" (Sec. 800.9) and afford the Advisory Council an opportunity to review and/or comment on the proposal.

Programmed Funds - Package No. 203

Project Type                        Amount            FY            Acct. No.

05 Survey                            $10,000            76            0320-399*
    *These funds are not needed at this time and should be reprogrammed.

35 Historic Structure Report    12,000            76            1375-399

Future Programmed Funds


Estimated Work Schedule

Administrative Data Section, March 1976
Architectural Data Section, March 1976
Historical Data Section, March 1976
Archeological Data Section, March 1976



Alan C. Reynolds, Historical Architect, DSC
Kenneth Bennett, Architecture Technician, DSC
Thomas Armstrong, Exhibits Specialist, DSC
A. H. Gustavson, Landscape Architect, DCS
Berle Clemensen, Historian, DSC
Deborah Bauxer, Archeologist, DSC
Superintendent, Indiana Dunes National Lakeshore, for preparation
        of Administrative Data Section


Superintendent and staff, Indiana Dunes National Lakeshore
Midwest Regional Office
Historic Preservation Division, DSC
Division of Design, DSC
Park Historic Preservation, WASO
Midwest Archeological Center


Part II

Scope of Work

I. Administrative Data
This section has already been prepared by the park staff and will be included in the report.

II. Historical Data
To be prepared by DSC historian.

III. Architectural Data
        A. Summary of historical data
        B. Anticipating use of the cemetery
        C. Evaluation of the present conditions of the cemetery.
        D. Causes of present deterioration.
        E. Evaluation of methods and materials for the cemetery rehabilitation
        F. Landscape design
        G. Additional design considerations
                1. Re-activation of the well and windmill
                2. Methods of providing security against vandalism
        H. Project time schedules
        I. Preliminary drawings for the proposed restoration
        J. Cost estimated for restoration


Part III

Basic Data

Historic Structure Report, Historical and Architectural Data on Bailly Homestead, Indiana Dunes National Lakeshore, prepared by Harry Pfanz and Russell Jones, November 1972.

Bailly Cemetery - Roman Style, by Theodore Stephens

Master Plan, Indiana Dunes National Lakeshore, approved Lemuel Garrison, Director, Northeast Region, November 1969.

Interpretive Prospectus (a part of the Master Plan) approved Henry G. Schmidt, Director, Northeast Region, February 1971.

Comprehensive Design Plan for Bailly Homestead Unit, recommended for revision by Superintendent, September 1975.



Carlson, E. H. "Reverend Carlson Attends and Writes about Funeral of Gifted Daughter of Early Indiana Settler." Chesterton (Ind.) Tribune, February 7, 1918.

Nelson, C. W. "The Bailly Cemetery." (1949). MS, Reed Folder, in files of Indiana Dunes National Lakeshore Park.

Pfanz, Harry W., and Jones, T. Russell. Historic Structure Report, Bailly Homestead, Historic and Architectural Data, Indiana Dunes National Lakeshore, Indiana. 1972. MS, in files of Historic Preservation Division, DSC, National Park Service.

Stephens, Theodore. "Bailly Cemetery - Roman Style." Duneland Historical Society, Living Biographies 2, no. 4 (May 1956).


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50 and 51

Plate 1.
This pre-1913 photograph is an interior view of the north wall, revealing the necropolis's enclosed interior. Note the limestone wall with the attached wooden cabinets and embedded granite plaques, which supports an iron-spiked concrete cap.
Date and photographer unknown.
Negative from files,
Indiana Dunes National Lakeshore Park.


Plate 2.
The relatively large scale of the prominent cross may be seen when comparing it to the persons dwarfed beneath it. Note the bolted cross straps that secure the horizontal member to the vertical staff. Duplicate cross straps were used on the opposite side of the cross.

Date and photographer unknown.

Negative from files,
Indiana Dunes National Lakeshore Park.

52 and 53

Plate 3.
A post-1915 photograph showing clearly the detail of the balustrade. The stairway leads down from the sand-filled necropolis to the terraced roadway.

Date and photographer unknown.
Negative from files,

Indiana Dunes National Lakeshore Park.

54 and 55

Plate 4.
A post-1915 photograph showing how the cemetery will appear after restorative construction. West elevation shown.

Date and photographer unknown.
Negative from files,

Indiana Dunes National Lakeshore Park.


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58 and 59

Plate 5.
Photograph indicates where the balustrade pedestals once stood in a staggered alignment. Upper stairway tread shows evidence of weathering, although damage is partially hidden by presence of leaves.

October 1975

DSC negative.

Plate 6.
This southern portion of the outer retaining wall is shown in a state of collapse. Grade erosion on the downhill side is responsible for this occurrence as are lateral grade forces exerted by the ascending terraces.

October 1975.

DSC negative.

60 and 61

Plate 7.
Existing conditions of south elevation are shown in this photograph. Note the areas of deterioration, which are primarily confined to the precast concrete wall coping.

October 1975.

DSC negative.

Plate 8.
Both the western cemetery wall and the corresponding inner belting retaining wall are included in the photograph. Wall facade deterioration is most noticeable at buttresses or in areas adjacent to them.

October 1975.

DSC negative.

62 and 63

Plate 9.
A detail photograph of the existing wall coping's cellular configuration. These cells allow water to penetrate the precast facade, thus making the wall highly vulnerable to normal freeze-thaw cycles. Also pictured is one of the radiating grooved walkways that show evidence of severe settling to the extent of fracturing.

October 1975

DCS negative.

Plate 10.
Contained within the necropolis's centrally located walkway circle is the cross's stone anchor insert and the encompassing footing. Piercing the limestone anchor is a steel dowel used to attach the sleeved butt of the cross to the stone anchor.

October 1975.

DSC negative.

64 and 65

Plate 11.
Tree in foreground is presently crushing the wall's coping at the point of contact. Since this is obviously a structural hazard, the tree limb must be removed to preclude further damage.

October 1975.

DSC negative.


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Sheets 1-5, #626/28,000
Bailly Cemetery: Existing and Proposed Conditions.


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Catherine H. Blee


A. Preliminary Information

At the request of Ken Bennett, Architecture Technician, Historic Preservation Division, DSC, this writer monitored his exploratory diggings at Bailly Cemetery, Indiana Dunes National Lakeshore. The work took eight hours on March 2, 1976, and about four hours on March 3. It was done as a part of the historic structure report being prepared by Ken and Berle Clemensen, Historian, DSC-MH. Six man-days were used in preparation for the trip (i.e., records search and library research), three man days in the field, and five man days in preparation of the report.

B. Description and Exploratory Work

Beginning at an area about three feet south of the northeast buttress of the cemetery and proceeding four to six feet south, the lower portion of the concrete block facing of the cemetery wall had fallen away. Mr. Bennett was concerned that settling of the wall had caused structural damage in that area, and that the footing under the wall were damaged to the extent that they would have to be repaired or replaced. This was the major area of investigation.

After some brief exploratory work in an area designated Test Pit A (See Fig. 1), the writer staked out a test trench (A) measuring forty-five inches east from the exposed limestone wall and fifty inches wide. The concrete rubble that had fallen from the wall was removed from the ground surface. The footing was encountered one to two inches below the surface. The trench was taken down in natural levels; that is, each level was of relatively homogeneous material.

The exposed profile (Fig. 2) clearly showed the development activity at the cemetery. Level 1 is mainly topsoil and humic material, heavily interlaced with root systems. Level 2 is mixed sand and humus; its mottled appearance implied that it was fill. The contractor, Mr. Stephens, apparently covered the footing with the mixed dirt and sand from the trenches excavated for the footing. Level 3 substantiates this idea; there is a two- to three-inch dark-brown humic layer that rapidly grades into light-colored sand at the top of the level. This was the original surface of the stabilized dune on which the cemetery sits. Level 4 consists of fine, sterile yellow sand, almost exclusive of any other material. A few worn stones, a chipping flake, and two objects that shall be discussed later were encountered. The trench was taken down to just below the footing in order to get an accurate measurement.

The wall footing was found to be complete and in excellent shape. The eroding of the wall was undoubtedly caused by water seepage and by root systems seeking the water retained in the cells of the concrete facing. There should be no structural damage to the footing of the cemetery wall.

Level 4, being sterile, homogeneous sand, represents the original living dune. The prehistoric material that it contained is not diagnostic; material on a living dune may not have been deposited in situ. The flake is man-made;


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PLAN: TRENCH A (Looking South)
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two chunks of red, granular rock were observed to be sand grains held together with hematite. These rocks could have been formed in the dune by pockets of standing water holding iron, or have been brought in for use by the Indians (Hagood, personal communication). Ground against a hard surface, the material crumbles and could be used as red pigment. Either way, the evidence provided by the hematite and the flake is inconclusive.

Level 4's indication of some sort of prehistoric activity tends to substantiate local feeling that the Bailly Cemetery was used aboriginally. Neil King, park interpreter, told me that the cemetery is often called "the Indian Cemetery," but could not cite any evidence substantiating this claim. McAllister (1932) mentions an "Indian Burial Ground" in his survey of Porter County, but placed it in the NE 1/4 of the NE 1/4 of the NW 1/4 of Section 26, Township 37 North, Range 6 West. The Bailly Cemetery is in the NE 1/4 of Section 27, placing the two no more than one-half mile apart. There is a possibility that the two cemeteries were confused with each other.

At the time that Theodore Stephens rebuilt the cemetery, ca. 1915, he encountered human bones in his construction activities, but he stated they were "the graves of people of the community" (Stephens, n.d.:3).

Nelson, in an early report on the cemetery, commented on its Indian origins:

        The cemetery has variously been referred to as the Bailly
        Cemetery, the Catholic Cemetery and the Indian Cemetery.
        These terms are probably all correct. It is quite well
        authenticated that the Indians used the sand ridge along
        the ancient shore-line for their burials. The Bailly hill
        being the largest dune of the ridge was probably used more
        than the smaller hills to the east and west (Nelson, n.d.:2).

He does not give his source for the "quite well authenticated" fact, and may have perpetuated a myth. Unless more prehistoric material is recovered under strict scientific control, nothing can be assumed. However, these "rumors" and the flake recovered are reason enough to recommend continued surveillance during any and all ground disturbance involved in restoring the cemetery.

A good overview of the prehistory of the Bailly Homestead area is given by Limp (1974:5-10), and should be consulted during any further archeological work at the cemetery. Porter County experienced the full gamut of prehistoric occupation in the northeast, from Paleo-Indian through the Archaic (including an interesting overlap of the Red Ochre, Old Copper, and Glacial Kame complexes), and into the Woodland. Historic tribes include the Potawatomi, Wea, and Miami. The late Archaic complexes mentioned above are defined by their burial customs, so there is good material available. The Woodland burial customs are also well documented; they usually involved artificial mounds. I could find no reference to burial customs of the historical tribes in the area. Since McAllister (1932), in his description of the "Indian Burial Ground" in Section 26, did not give the particulars of the interment, it is impossible


to determine what culture it may be associated with. No probable association for possible prehistoric graves at Bailly Cemetery can be made at this time.

Two other exploratory diggings were undertaken, neither of which disturbed cultural material. Test Pit B, plotted in on Fig. 3, was dug to determine what Stephens had used to fill in the original south gate in the limestone wall. The test pit was about eight inches deep and measured eighteen by sixty-six inches. The soil consisted of mixed sand and humus capped by a four-inch-thick topsoil brought in to fill the inner part of the cemetery. The testing showed that he filled the gap with rough-cut limestone, barely mortared.

The third area of investigation was at an eight-foot gap in the outer retaining wall along the east side of the cemetery. With a trowel point, the writer encountered a hard substance about three inches below the surface. In tracing this resistance, an eight-inch-wide concrete footing that ran the length of the gap was exposed. Only the three- to four-inch humic layer above the footing was moved; no cultural material was found.

Trench A was backfilled above the top of the footings, and some scattered concrete blocks replaced on the surface to prevent erosion. Test Pit B was filled with its back dirt and was small enough that spring vegetation will obliterate any sign of the testing. The retaining wall footings were left exposed.


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Artifacts from Test Trench A

Level 2, of Test Trench A yielded three artifacts of some note: a fragmented pipe and two square nails. Drawings of the artifacts are seen in Fig. 4.

Two square nails were found in Level 2, which appears to be fill, and probably came from the trench dug for the footings. Both nails have shanks that are rectangular in cross section; they taper in towards the end on two sides but are parallel on the other two, indicating that they are machine cut. The one complete nail is burred on the same side, which indicates that it was made by the "flipping" technique. The shank goes straight up to a machine-made head, and the metal fiber runs the length of the nail rather than crosswise as shown in the bent nail. All of these characteristics indicate that the nails could not be older than 1830, providing Level 2 with a terminus ante quem date of 1830 (Nelson, 1968; Noel Hume, 1974).

Level 2 also yielded four fragments of a white kaolin pipe, which, when cleaned, fit together to form the groken pipe pictured in Fig. 4. Ivor Noel Hume talks about the importance of the clay pipe in dating historical sites:

        The English kaolin tobacco pipe is possibly the most valuable
        clue yet available to the student of historical sites, for it
        is an item that was manufactured, imported, smoke, and thrown
        away, all within a matter of a year or two. . . . In addition,
        pipes were extremely cheap (selling in 1790 for as little as
        two shillings a gross), thus making them available to all
        economic levels of colonial society. They were as expendable
        as cigarettes, though vastly more durable, ensuring that their
        fragments survive in the ground in prodigious quantities
        (Noel Hume, 1974:296).

The kaolin pipe had completely fallen out of popularity by the turn of the century, thus indicating that Level 2 came from below the top of Level 3 originally. This buried surface dates at 1915 because it corresponds to the bottom of the molded footing and would have been the original surface.

The Bailly Cemetery pipe has an undecorated bowl and a relief-decorated stem bearing the words "IN GOUDA" in the right side and "A SPARNAAY" on the left, indicating it was made by a company called A. Sparnaay in Gouda, Holland, and is of a middle- to late-nineteenth-century date (Hanson, 1971:98, and Humphrey, 1969:18-20).


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The Cemetery

Clemensen, Berle
1975    Bailly homestead unit, Indiana Dunes National Lakeshore: history,
            maps, evaluation of historic resources, determinations of structures
            composing the Bailly homestead. Historic Preservation Division,
            National Park Service, Denver Service Center. xeroxed.

Howe, France R.
1907    The story of a French homestead in the Old Northwest. Press of
            Nitschke Bros., Columbus, Ohio.

Nelson, C. W.
1949    The Bailly cemetery. Reed Folder. Indiana Dunes National Lake-
            shore Park. xeroxed.

Pfanz, Harry W., and Jones, T. Russell
1972    Historic structure report, Bailly homestead, historical and
            architectural data, Indiana Dunes National Lakeshore, Indiana.
            Historic Preservation Division, National Park Service, Denver
            Service Center. xeroxed.

Stephens, Theodore
1956    Bailly cemetery--Roman style. Duneland Historical Society, Living
            Biographies 2, no. 4.

The Prehistory

Dorwin, John T.
1966    Fluted points and late Pleistocene geochronology in Indiana. The
            Prehistory Research Series of the Indiana Historical Society 4,
            no. 3.

Fitting, James E.
1970    The archaeology of Michigan: a guide to the prehistory of the Great
            Lakes region. Natural History Press, Garden City, New York.

Honerkamp, Marjory
1968    An appraisal of the archaeological resources and ecological context
            of the proposed Indiana Dunes National Lakeshore. Manuscript report.
            Historic Preservation Division, National Park Service, Denver
            Service Center.

Limp, W. Frederick
1974    The Bailly site: an archaeological study of an early historic
            homestead in the Calumet. Manuscript report. Historic Preservation
            Division, National Park Service, Denver Service Center.


McAllister, J. Gilbert
1932    The archaeology of Porter County. Indiana History Bulletin 10,
            no. 1.

Morgan, Richard G.
1952    Outline of cultures in the Ohio region. In The Archaeology of the
            Eastern United States, edited by James B. Griffen. University of
            Chicago Press.

Oswalt, Wendell H.
1973    The fox. In This land was theirs, a study of the North American
            Indian. John Wiley and Sons, New Yok.

Quimby, George I.
1952    The archaeology of the Upper Great Lakes area. In The archaeology
            of the Eastern United States, edited by James B. Griffen. Univer-
            sity of Chicago Press.

Ritzenthaler, Robert E., and Quimby, George I.
1962    The Red Ochre culture of the Upper Lakes and adjacent areas.
            Fieldiana. Anthropology 36, no. 11:243-275.

The Artifacts

Hagood, Allen
            (Personal communication. Geologist, Pacific Northwest/Western
            Planning Team, Denver Service Center, National Park Service.)

Hanson, Lee H. Jr.
1971    Pipes from Rome New York. Historical Archaeology 5:92-99.

Humphrey, Richard V.
1969    Clay pipes from old Sacramento. Historical Archaeology 3:12-33.

Nelson, Lee H.
1968    Nail chronology as an aid to dating old buildings. American
            Association for State and Local History Technical Leaflet 48,
            History News 24, no. 11.

Noel Hume, Ivor
1974    A guide to artifacts of colonial America. Alfred A. Knopf, New

Wilson Rex L.
1971    Clay tobacco pipes from Fort Laramie National Historic Site and
            related locations. National Park Service.

As the Nation's principal conservation agency, the Department of the Interior has basic responsibilities to protect and conserve our land an water, energy and minerals, fish and wildlife, parks and recreation areas, and to ensure the wise use of all these resources. The Department also has major responsibility for American Indian reservation communities and for people who live in island territories under U. S. administration.

NPS 1125



Part II. Historical Data
1. C. W. Nelson, "The Bailly Cemetery," (1949), MS, Reed Folder, in files of Indiana Dunes National Lakeshore Park, pp. 4-7.

2. Ibid., p. 3.

3. Chesterton (Ind.) Tribune, September 9, 1909; Nelson, "The Bailly Cemetery," p. 3.

4. Frances R. Howe, The Story of a French Homestead in the Old Northwest (Columbus, Ohio: Press of Nitschke Bros., 1907), p. 68.

5. Nelson, "The Bailly Cemetery," p. 3; Olga Schiemann, "Historical Notes," (1952), MS, in files of Indiana Dunes National Lakeshore Park, p. 3.

6. Schiemann, "Historical Notes," p. 3. Mrs. Rose Bailly Howe paid her brother-in-law, Joel Wicker, twenty-five dollars to fence the area.

7. Nelson, "The Bailly Cemetery," p. 7.

8. Schiemann, "Historical Notes," p. 4.

9. Theodore Stephens, "Bailly Cemetery--Roman Style," Duneland Historical Society, Living Biographies 2, no. 4 (May 1956): 1-2. "The Bailly Cemetery," pp. 6-7, 9.

10. Chesterton (Ind.) Tribune, December 3, 1884.

11. Stephens described the plaques and cross in "Bailly Cemetery--Roman Style."

12. Nelson, "The Bailly Cemetery," p. 6; Stephens, "Bailly Cemetery--Roman Style," p. 2.

13. Stevens, "Bailly Cemetery--Roman Style," p. 2.

14. Ibid., pp. 2-3.

15. Ibid., pp. 3-4.

16. Ibid., p. 2.

17. Chesterton (Ind.) Tribune, February 7, 1918; Stephens, "Bailly Cemetery--Roman Style," p. 3; Nelson, The Bailly Cemetery," p. 11.

18. Chesterton (Ind.) Tribune, February 7, 1918; Nelson, "The Bailly Cemetery," p. 11.

19. Nelson, "The Bailly Cemetery," pp. 11-12.

Part III. Architectural Data
1. A cemetery, especially one of large size or of olden times.

2. Theodore Stephens, "Bailly Cemetery--Roman Style," Duneland Historical Society, Living Biographies 2, no. 4 (May 1956): 2.

3. C. W. Nelson, "The Bailly Cemetery," (1949), MS, in files of Indiana Dunes National Lakeshore Park, p. 5.

4. Nelson, "The Bailly Cemetery," p. 9.

Bailly Homestead historical transcriptions prepared by Steven R. Shook


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